NUTRITION RESEARCH--KEY REFERENCES

ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS
SIGNIFICANT REFERENCES

1. Bissonnette, D.J. et al (2017). The Effect of Nonnutritive Sweeteners Added to a Liquid Diet on Volume and Caloric Intake and Weight Gain in Rats. Obesity (Silver Spring); 25(9):1556-1563. doi: 10.1002/oby.21920. Epub 2017 Aug 1

2. Brown RJ, and Rother KI. (2012) Non-nutritive sweeteners and their role in the gastrointestinal tract. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; Epub ahead of print

3. US Department of Agriculture, US Department of Health and Human Services. (2010) Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 7th ed. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

4. Fitch C, and Keim KS. (2012) Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. J Acad Nutr Diet;112(5):739-758.

5. Sweeteners — sugars. MedlinePlus website. http://www.nlm/nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002444.htm. Updated May 5, 2011. Accessed June 18, 2012.

6. Facts about low-calorie sweeteners. International Food Information Council Foundation website.
http://www.foodinsight.org/Content/6/LCS Fact Sheet_11-09.pdf. November 2009. Accessed June 19, 2012.

7. FDA (2010) Agency response letter GRAS notice no. GRN 000301. US Food and Drug Administration website. http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodIngredientsPackaging/GenerallyRecognizedasSafeGRAS/
GRASListings/ucm200326.htm
.  Accessed June 21, 2012.

8. NCI (National Cancer Institute, 2009). Artificial sweeteners and cancer. National Cancer Institute website. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/artificial-sweeteners. Reviewed August 5, 2009.

9. AND (Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics). Nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Library. http://www.adaevidencelibrary.com/topic.cfm?cat=4116. Accessed June 25, 2012.

10. Mattes RD, and Popkin BM. (2009). Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr; 89(1):1-14.

11. Renwick AG. (2006). The intake of intense sweeteners — an update review. Food Addit Contam;23(4):327-338.

12. Anderson GH, Foreyt J, Sigman-Grant M, Allison DB (2012). The use of low-calorie sweeteners by adults: impact on weight management. J Nutr;142(6):1163S-1169S.

13. Dieckman, C. (2012). Learn the Truth About the Different Types of Sweeteners to Better Counsel Patients. Today's Dietitian 14(9): 42. Retrieved from Today's Dietitian Dec 9/16 

CANCER & NUTRITION

1. Anderson, J.J (2018). Red and processed meat consumption and breast cancer: UK Biobank cohort study and meta-analysis. European Journal of Cancer; 90: 73–82  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2017.11.022

2. Some Spices May have Medicinal Values says Dietitian

Cardamom: Cardamom may be helpful in reducing blood pressure and protecting cells against damage therefore playing an important role as an anti-inflammatory agent. It has also been connected with squelching symptoms of upset stomach including nausea, heartburn and irritable bowel syndrome.

Chilies: Chili peppers are rich in vitamin A, and they have been shown to reduce pain, fight free radicals, lower cholesterol, clear congestion and boost immunity.

Cumin: Cumin may help improve digestion by promoting the activity of digestive enzymes. Interestingly, one ground teaspoon of cumin seeds are rich in iron, providing 1.4 mg of iron, or 17.5% of the RDI for adults. As with other plant compounds, cumin’s antioxidants help to decrease inflammation and may be beneficial in helping to control heart disease, diabetes and cancer. READ MORE

HEART DISEASE

Conclusion: Our data indicate that a daily magnesium supplement of 350 mg for 24 wk in overweight and obese adults reduces arterial stiffness, as estimated by a decrease in PWVc-f, suggesting a potential mechanism by which an increased dietary magnesium intake beneficially affects cardiovascular health.

A randomized, crossover, head-to-head comparison of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation to reduce inflammation markers in men and women: the Comparing EPA to DHA (ComparED) Study

ConclusionDHA is more effective than EPA in modulating specific markers of inflammation as well as blood lipids. Additional studies are needed to determine the effect of a long-term DHA supplementation per se on cardiovascular disease risk. This trial was registered at

Abstract: The Mediterranean dietary pattern has been linked with reduced cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality. Components of the Mediterranean diet associated with better cardiovascular health include low consumption of meat and meat products, moderate consumption of ethanol (mostly from wine), and high consumption of vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, fish, and olive oil. Increasing evidence indicates that the synergy among these components results in beneficial changes in intermediate pathways of cardiometabolic risk, such as lipids, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and vasoreactivity. As a result, consumption of a Mediterranean dietary pattern favorably affects numerous cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Moreover, strong evidence links this dietary pattern with reduced cardiovascular disease incidence, reoccurrence, and mortality. This review evaluates the current evidence behind the cardioprotective effects of a Mediterranean dietary pattern.

Background: Although multivitamins are widely used by US adults, few prospective studies have investigated their association with the long- and short-term risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate how multivitamin use is associated with the risk of CVD in initially healthy men at baseline.

Conclusions: In this long-term prospective study in initially healthy men, multivitamin use for ≥20 y was associated with a lower risk of major CVD events.

Abstract: A long-term intervention with an unrestricted-calorie, high-vegetable-fat Mediterranean diet was associated with decreases in bodyweight and less gain in central adiposity compared with a control diet. These results lend support to advice not restricting intake of healthy fats for bodyweight maintenance.

Conclusion: Larger initial weight loss should be encouraged in individuals with type 2 diabetes, despite the possibility of regain.

NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES

1. Prevalence of B12 Deficiency in Pregnancy: Am J Clin Nutr 2016;103 (5) 1232-1251

Conclusions: Our review indicates that vitamin B-12 insufficiency during pregnancy is common even in non-vegetarian populations and that concentrations of vitamin B-12 decrease from the first to the third trimester. There is no consistent association between vitamin B-12 insufficiency and LBW. However, given the long-term risks of LBW, this observation warrants further cohort studies and randomized controlled trials.

Conclusions: Race-ethnicity differences in the prevalence of low total 25(OH)D remained strong even after adjustment for season to account for the NHANES design imbalance between season, latitude, and race-ethnicity. The strong correlation between C3-epi-25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D3 may be because the epimer is a metabolite of 25(OH)D3. The presence of 25(OH)D2 mainly in older persons is likely a result of high-dose prescription vitamin D2

MALNUTRITION HAS BEEN RECOGNIZED FOR ITS association with negative clinical outcomes in hospitalized adults for many years. In the mid- 1930s, Hiram Studley observed that patients with peptic ulcer disease who lost more than 20% of their usual body weight had 10-fold greater mortality than those with less weight loss.1,2 A landmark editorial 40 years later, “The Skeleton in the Hospital Closet,” by Charles Butterworth,3 called attention to hospital-acquired malnutrition. Yet many issues around the identification of malnutrition and effective treatment options remain unresolved.

Conclusion: The overall prevalence of suboptimal nutritional status on admission to hospitals remains high, and significant associations between childhood malnutrition and clinical outcomes continue to be reported.

Conclusions: The MST showed good concurrent validity and can be considered an appropriate nutrition screening tool in geriatric rehabilitation. The MNA-SF may overestimate the risk of malnutrition in this population. The predictive validity could not be established for either screening tool.

Conclusion: Both breakfast consumption and the content may be associated with improved standardized test performance in elementary school students.

OBESITY

1. Overweight and Obesity in Sexual-Minority Women: Evidence From Population-Based Data: Am J Public Health. 2007 June; 97(6): 1134–1140.

Objective. We sought to determine whether lesbians have higher rates of overweight and obesity than women of other sexual orientations.

Methods. We compared population estimates of overweight and obesity across sexual orientation groups, using data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth.

Results. Adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses showed lesbians have more than twice the odds of overweight (odds ratio [OR]=2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.40, 5.18) and obesity (OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.19, 5.09) as heterosexual women. Bisexuals and women who reported their sexual orientation as “something else” (besides heterosexual, lesbian, or bisexual) showed no such increase in the odds of overweight and obesity.

Conclusions. Lesbian women have a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than all other female sexual orientation groups. This finding suggests that lesbians are at greater risk for morbidity and mortality linked to overweight and obesity. This finding also highlights the need for interventions within this population.

2. Does stress influence sleep patterns, food intake, weight gain, abdominal obesity and weight loss interventions and vice versa? Obesity Review August 2017 DOI: 10.1111/obr.12603

Summary

Decades of research have reported only weak associations between the intakes of specific foods or drinks and weight gain and obesity. Randomized controlled dietary intervention trials have only shown very modest effects of changes in nutrient intake and diet composition on body weight in obese subjects. This review summarizes the scientific evidence on the role mental stress (either in or not in association with impaired sleep) may play in poor sleep, enhanced appetite, cravings and decreased motivation for physical activity. All these factors contribute to weight gain and obesity, possibly via decreasing the efficacy of weight loss interventions. We also review evidence for the role that lifestyle and stress management may play in achieving weight loss in stress-vulnerable individuals with overweight.

3. Study links lower-carb diet to higher atrial fibrillation risk

Summary

People who followed diets that had fewer than 45% of calories from carbohydrates had an 18% higher risk of atrial fibrillation than those whose diets had from 45% to 52% of calories from carbs, according to a study to be presented at an American College of Cardiology conference. Registered dietitian nutritionist Samantha Heller commented that fad diets can eliminate healthy foods and lead to nutrient deficiencies. READ MORE...

4. Child and teen obesity soars tenfold worldwide in 40 years

Summary

GENEVA (Reuters) - The number of obese children and adolescents worldwide has jumped tenfold in the past 40 years and the rise is accelerating in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Asia, a major study said on Wednesday. READ MORE...

5. Millennials are the Fattest Generation in History
Summary
More than seven in ten carrying extra pounds before they hit middle age, according to the latest analysis. READ MORE
RECENT KEY PUBLICATIONS

Annals of Internal Medicine, June 28, 2016
http://annals.org/onlineFirst.aspx
-Binge-Eating Disorder in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, June 24-28, 2016
http://www.karger.com/Journal/Issue/271813
-Vitamin D3-Supplemented Yogurt Drink Improves Insulin Resistance and Lipid Profiles in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double Blinded Clinical Trial
-Nutritional Status Deteriorates Postoperatively Despite Preoperative Nutritional Support

British Journal of Nutrition, June 27, 2016
http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=BJN
-Impact of low-carbohydrate diet on renal function: a meta-analysis of over 1000 individuals from nine randomised controlled trials

Integrative Cancer Therapies, June 28, 2016, Online First
http://ict.sagepub.com/content/early/recent
-Consumption of Fresh Yellow Onion Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Insulin Resistance in Breast Cancer Patients During Doxorubicin-Based Chemotherapy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 06/24 2016, 
http://www.tandfonline.com/action/showAxaArticles?journalCode=iijf20
-Diet-induced acidosis and alkali supplementation

Nutrients, June 2016
http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/8/6
-Comparison of Intradialytic Parenteral Nutrition with Glucose or Amino Acid Mixtures in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients
-Effect of Immune-Enhancing Enteral Nutrition Enriched with or without Beta-Glucan on Immunomodulation in Critically Ill Patients
-Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial
-Weight-Loss Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intermittent Energy Restriction Trials Lasting a Minimum of 6 Months

Nutrition and Cancer, June 27, 2016
http://www.tandfonline.com/action/showAxaArticles?journalCode=hnuc20
-Nutritional Status Parameters as Risk Factors for Mortality in Cancer Patients
-Early and Intensive Dietary Counseling in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving (Chemo) Radiotherapy—A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Pedagogy in Health Promotion, June 28, 2016 
http://php.sagepub.com/content/early/recent
-Evaluating the Relationships Among Teacher Characteristics, Implementation Factors, and Student Outcomes of Children Participating in an Experiential School-Based Nutrition Program

Public Health Nutrition, June 24, 2016
http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayIssue?iid=717516
-Comparison of different measures of obesity in their association with health-related quality of life in older adults – results from the KORA-Age study
-Dietary fried fish intake increases risk of CVD: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study

Groceries in wicker basket/Copyright: monticello/shutterstock

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